The Republic of Botswana is a country in the South of Africa. It borders with South Africa to the south, Namibia to the west, Zambia to the north, and Zimbabwe to the northeast; it has no outlet to the sea. The state covers 581 730 km ² and is home to 1,640,115 inhabitants with a population density of 2.7 inhabitants/km ². The official language is English, but Tswana is very common the, language of the Tswana people, which has the status of national language. With the name of Bechuanaland it was a British protectorate until 1966, when it gained independence. The name can be roughly translated as the land of those who speak Tswana, or the land of the Tswana people. “Tswana” was transcribed initially in chuana by the British, and the country name became Bechuanaland.
Botswana has a population of 1,640,115 inhabitants (as of 2005), mainly concentrated in the east of the country. Given that in 1971 the population was about 574,000 units, it can be said that it has tripled in thirty years, with an annual growth rate that is around 2%. This rate fell rapidly in the 2000s, primarily as a result of the effects of increasingly accentuated the spread of HIV. 38.8% of adults (about 350000 people) is affected by the virus and in 2003 there were 33000 deaths from AIDS. The annual growth rate of the population has gradually dropped until it acquires a negative sign in 2005, the year in which the birth rate was 23.33 births per 1,000 inhabitants, compared with a mortality rate of 29.36. In the same period there has been a dramatic decline in life expectancy from 60 years a decade ago, to 49-50 years today.
The Bantu blacks make up the majority of the population, the three main ethnic groups are the Bantu Tswana ( 66.8% of the population), the Shona ( 14.8 %) and Ndebele (1.7%). Other not Bantu blacks are those of the Khoisan group: Bushmen (1.3%) and Hottentots (1.3%). The remaining 14.1% is score from various other ethnic groups, including other Bantu groups, whites (especially Anglo-Saxon origin) and mixed groups (especially mulattoes, or crosses between the white Anglo-Saxon and Bantu Tswana).
The official language, English, is spoken by just 2.1% of the population. The most spoken language is Setswana (78.2 %), which is , according to the constitution, the national language. Follow other Bantu idioms, including the Kalanga (7.9%) and the sekgalagadi (2.8%) (2001 Census).
The most widespread religion is animism (55%), followed by Protestant (13 %) and Catholicism (4%). There is a small Muslim minority (1%). The rest is divided among other Christian faiths, particularly Anglicanism.